Influence of positive sanctions on children’s social development: the case of Kuria east sub county, Migori county, Kenya
Odhiambo, Amolo Amos
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Children’s social development is a worldwide concern because it is the foundation for lifelong learning in every aspect of a child's life. Negative sanction methods used to promote children’s social development are more pronounced than positive sanctions. This study sought to investigate the influence of positive sanctions on children’s social development in Kuria East Sub-County. Specific objectives of the study were to; assess the influence of reward on children’s social development, establish the influence of parenting styles on children’s social development and determine the effectiveness of resilience building on children’s social development. The study was guided by social action theory. It employed a cross-sectional survey design and mixed-methods approach. The sample size was 391 households, determined by the Taro Yamane formula, from a population of 17,363 households. Four key informants, comprising school head teachers, were purposefully selected. The study employed multistage cluster sampling, after which proportionate samples were allocated to each data collection site. Simple random sampling was used to select the main respondents. The study used a questionnaire for the main respondents and a key interview schedule for the key informants. The validity of the instruments was ascertained by the university supervisors and through training research assistants. Reliability was enhanced through computation of Cronbach alpha of internal consistency after a pilot study in Kuria West Sub-County. Quantitative data were analysed inferentially using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient while descriptive statistics were analysed descriptively using frequency counts, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Quantitative data were presented using tables and charts while qualitative data were presented in themes based on the study objectives. The study revealed that rewards have moderate positive influence on children’s social development, with statistically significant (r=0.319, p<.000) relationship. Monetary reward had weak positive relationship with children’s social development, however, not statistically significant (r=.096, p>.05) whereas social approval had moderate positive (r=.439, p<.05) and statistically significant relationship with children’s social development. Parenting styles had moderate, positive (r=.416, p<.05) and statistical significant influence on children’s social development. Authoritative parenting had a strong positive and significant influence on children’s social development (r=.648, p< .000), authoritarian parenting had moderate and positive influence on children’s social development (r=.233, p<.000) while permissive parenting had weak negative influence on children’s social development (r=.233, p<.000). Resilience building had strong and positive significant relationship (r= .759, p< .000) with children’s social development. Resilience building administered by parents or household head had stronger positive and significant influence (r= .795, p< .000) on children’s social development than resilience building administered by peers, religious leaders and teachers (r= .664, p< .000). The study recommends to the Ministry of Education to put in place a policy on use of rewards in form of social approval to empower children and encourage children’s social development. The Directorate of Social development, culture, and sports to step up sensitization and trainings on positive parenting approaches with an emphasis on authoritative parenting style. The Ministry of Education to enforce use of resilience building approaches to achieve children’s social development in schools.