Secondary school principals’ motivational rewards on retention: case of secondary school teachers in Homa bay county, Kenya
Okello, Lazarus Millan
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Reward systems have become an important integral part of curbing teachers‟ attrition from one school to the other through transfer requests in Kenya. Teachers can choose schools that provide inducements and retention benefits; in return, they will continue to impart knowledge and be dedicated to their work. The purpose of this study was to examine secondary school principals‟ motivational rewards on retention: case of secondary school teachers in Homa Bay County, Kenya. The study was premised on the investment of Adams Equity Theory; Expectancy Theory and Hertzberg Two Factor Theory. The objectives of the study were: to establish the influence of school environmental characteristics on retention of secondary school teachers; to determine the impact of principals‟ recognition on retention of secondary school teachers; to examine the role of staff promotional opportunities by the principals on retention of secondary school teachers, to establish the influence of leadership behaviour of principals on retention of secondary school teachers and to establish the school measures used to enhance teachers retention in Homa Bay County. The study adopted a mixed research method with a survey research design. The target population comprised of two thousand and ninety-six (2,096) secondary school principals and teachers. Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of specification was used to determine the study sample. A random sampling technique was used to select 169 school principals and 320 teachers yielding a total sample size of 489 respondents. Data was collected using a set of questionnaires with each sub section catering for each objective. An interview schedule was used to collect data from 18 selected principals. Validity of the research instrument was assured through expert judgement by the University lecturers. The reliability of the research instruments was determined using Cronbach‟s Alpha and a coefficient of r>.6 was reported in all the six subscales in the questionnaire. A questionnaire piloted prior to data collection to determine the validity and reliability was used as the main research instrument. The data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) windows version 22 computer programme. Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, t-test and regression analysis were used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis. Participants‟ confidentiality was promised and adhered to by the researcher. The study established that all the independent variables were positively associated to teacher retention in secondary schools in Homa Bay County, they all achieved statistically significant positive correlation at ɑ= .05 significant level. Regression Model was highly significant [F (4, 417) = 69.7, p<.05] and proved adequate to explain the variance in the dependent variable, teacher retention. The model explained about 40.1% (R2 =.401) of the variability in teacher retention. The teacher recognition variable alone uniquely accounted for the highest (Beta=.470) influence in the model, while leadership behaviour of principal did not have significant [Beta=.003, p=.942(ns)] impact on teacher retention. It is hoped that the findings of this study may help the Principals and other education stakeholders find better ways of rewarding teachers to curb their attrition through transfers to other secondary schools. The study recommends that Guidance and Counselling departments be strengthened to reduce cases of insecurity through students strikes, school principals should introduce motivational bonuses and involve teachers in decision making process at all school levels. Principals should assure teachers upward mobility at their work place as this increases teachers‟ confidence at work place. School principals should embrace relationship-oriented leadership behaviour to promote teachers‟ retention and mentoring program should be offered to newly appointed teachers to enhance positive motive on teaching at schools.
- School of Education 
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