|dc.description.abstract||Background: Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with
diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might
have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities.
Methods: We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children) to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral
rehydration solution (ORS) sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children) to receive ORS at
home, but zinc at the health–facility only. Children’s caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both
unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI)
reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for
baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children’s age.
Results: There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting
to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed), 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in
comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p,0.0001). There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6%) and
comparison villages (58.8%). Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (,0.5%). There was a
lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46–0.99), but not presenting at clinic.
Conclusions: In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with
proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in
parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low.||en_US